Centrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery.Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric motor. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis .. Read More..
Vulcanization is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials via the addition of sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators. These additives modify the polymer by forming cross-links (bridges) between individual polymer chains.Vulcanized materials are less sticky and have superior mechanical properties. Th.. Read More..
A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.Hydrogen produced from the steam methane reforming of natural gas is the most common fuel, but for greater efficiency hydrocarbons can be used directly such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol. Fuel cells are d.. Read More..
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers known generically as aliphatic polyamides, first produced on February 28, 1935, by Wallace Carothers at DuPont's research facility at the DuPont Experimental Station.Nylon is one of the most commonly used polymers. Key representatives are nylon-6,6; nylon-6; nylon-6,9; nylon-6,10; nylon-6,12; nylon-.. Read More..
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as “spirit of niter,” is a very strong acid.Between 75-80% of industrial nitric acid is used as a raw material in the production of fertilizer.It is also used in niche industries such as rocket fuel, woodworking (where it is used to artificially age wood) and cleaning stainless steel. It remains an important chemical, however, in the.. Read More..
The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases. The mask forms a sealed cover over the nose and mouth, but may also cover the eyes and other vulnerable soft tissues of the face. Some gas masks are also respirators, though the word gas mask is often used to refer to military equipment (e.g. Field Protective Mask). The .. Read More..
In 1926, Waldo Lonsbury Semon was working for the B.F. Goodrich Company in the United States as a researcher, when he invented plasticized polyvinyl chloride.Waldo Semon had been trying to dehydrohalogenate polyvinyl chloride in a high boiling solvent in order to obtain an unsaturated polymer that could bond rubber to metal.For his invention, Waldo Semon received Unit.. Read More..
WD-40 is the trademark name of a penetrating oil and water-displacing spray.WD-40 Was developed in 1953 by Dr. Norm Larsen,founder of the Rocket Chemical Company, in San Diego, California. WD-40, abbreviated from the phrase "Water Displacement, 40th formula,"was originally designed to repel water and prevent corrosion,and later was found to have numerous household use.. Read More..
The periodic table is an arrangement of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations and recurring chemical properties. Elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number. The standard form of the table consists of a grid of elements, with rows called periods and columns called groups.As a professor, Mendeleye.. Read More..
Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents. Generally considered the first thermoplastic, it was first created as Parkesine in 1856 and as Xylonite in 1869, before being registered as Celluloid in 1870. Celluloid is easily molded and shaped, and it was first widely used as an ivory replacement. The mai.. Read More..
Bakelite is an early plastic. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from an elimination reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. It was developed by Belgian-born chemist Leo Baekeland in New York in 1907.History:One of the earliest synthetics that transformed the material basis of modern life was Bakelite, a polymeric plastic made from phenol and formal.. Read More..
Carbon-14 dating is a method of determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon (14C), a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was invented by Willard Libby in the late 1940s and soon became a standard tool for archaeologists. Libby received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1960. The radiocarbon dating method is b.. Read More..
Stretch fabric is a term that refers to synthetic fabrics which stretch in all four directions. This is in contrast to normal fabrics that will often stretch to a small extent, although only in two directions.Stretch fabrics evolved from the scientific effort to make fibres using neoprene. From this research, in 1958 commercial stretch fabrics ('elastomerics').. Read More..
In chemistry, pH is the negative log of the activity of the hydrogen ion in an aqueous solution. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. Pure water has a pH of 7.The modern, electronic pH meter was invented about a quarter century later, around 1934/5, when American chemist Arnold Beckman (190.. Read More..
In 1836, Edmund Davy discovered a gas which he recognised as "a new carburet of hydrogen." It was an accidental discovery while attempting to isolate potassium metal. By heating potassium carbonate with carbon at very high temperatures, he produced a residue of what is now known as potassium carbide, (K2C2), which reacted with water to release the new gas. (A similar .. Read More..
Berthelot's reagent is an alkaline solution of phenol and hypochlorite, used in analytical chemistry. It is named after its inventor, Marcellin Berthelot. Ammonia reacts with Berthelot's reagent to form a blue product which is used in a colorimetric method for determining ammonia. The reagent can also be used for determining urea. In this case the enzyme ureas.. Read More..
Semtex was invented by Stanislav Brebera who was a famous chemist. It was invented in the years of late 1950s and was presented commercially for sale in the market in the year of 1964.SemtexSemtex can be said as an explosive which includes RDX and PETN in it and it is in shape of plastic explosive. The basic functions and usages of the Semtex are as the some military .. Read More..
The Verneuil process, also called flame fusion, was the first commercially successful method of manufacturing synthetic gemstones, developed in 1902 by the French chemist Auguste Verneuil. It is a process for making synthetic rubies, sapphires, spinels, etc., by the fusion at high temperatures of powdered compounds. Also called flame-fusion process.The Verneuil proce.. Read More..
The well plate or microplate was created in 1951 by Hungarian physician, scientist, and inventor Dr. Gyula Takátsy, who hand-machined 6 rows of 12 “wells” out of Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) or more commonly know by its trade name as Lucite. PMMA was developed in 1928 in various labs by multiple chemists and became commercially available in 1933 by the Rohm .. Read More..
Sandblasting is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface, or remove surface contaminants. A pressurized fluid, typically air, or a centrifugal wheel is used to propel the blasting material (often called the media). The first abrasive bla.. Read More..
Vinylon, also called as Vinalon, is a synthetic fiber produced from polyvinyl alcohol, using anthracite and limestone as raw materials. Vinalon was first developed in 1939 by Ichiro Sakurada, Ri Sung Gi, and H. Kawakami.Production of this fiber was delayed for World War II. The fibre was largely ignored in Korea until Ri defected to North Korea in 1950. Trial producti.. Read More..
The Claus process is a catalytic chemical process for converting gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) into elemental sulfur (S).The process is commonly referred to as a sulfur recovery unit (SRU) and is very widely used to produce sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide found in raw natural gas and from the by-product sour gases containing hydrogen sulfide derived from refining pe.. Read More..
The Schiff test is an early organic chemistry name reaction developed by Hugo Schiff,and is a relatively general chemical test for detection of many organic aldehydes that has also found use in the staining of biological tissues.The Schiff reagent is the reaction product of a dye formulation such as fuchsin and sodium bisulfite; pararosaniline (which lacks an aromatic.. Read More..
A column still, also called a continuous still, patent still or Coffey still, is a variety of still consisting of two columns.Aeneas CoffeyThe design was to be improved and patented by an Irishman, Aeneas Coffey. Educated at Dublin's Trinity College, Coffey had ample opportunities to observe all manner of still designs because he had worked for a quarter of a cent.. Read More..
Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism. This is typically facilitated via use of a liquid, semi-solid, or solid growth medium, such as broth or agar. Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues, with the more specific term plant tissue culture being used for plants.HistoryIn 1885 Wilhelm Roux removed a.. Read More..
LSD was first synthesized on November 16, 1938 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in Sandoz Laboratories in Basle, Switzerland. However, it was a few years before Albert Hofmann realized what he had invented. LSD known as LSD-25 or Lysergic Acid Diathylamide is a psychoactive hallucinogenic drug.LSD-25LSD-25 was the twenty-fifth compound developed during Albert Hofmann.. Read More..
Kipp's apparatus, also called Kipp generator, is an apparatus designed for preparation of small volumes of gases. It was invented around 1844 by the Dutch pharmacist Petrus Jacobus Kipp and widely used in chemical laboratories and for demonstrations in schools into the second half of the 20th century.It later fell out of use, at least in laboratories, because most.. Read More..
The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium. It was invented by William J. Kroll in Luxembourg. After moving to the United States, Kroll further developed the method for the production of zirconium. The Kroll process replaced the Hunter process for almost all commercial production.ProcessRefined rutile (or ilmenite) fr.. Read More..
Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed by Stephanie Kwolek at DuPont in 1965,this high-strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as .. Read More..
MKM steel, an alloy containing nickel and aluminum, was developed in 1931 by the Japanese metallurgist Tokuhichi Mishima. While conducting research into the properties of nickel, Mishima discovered that a strongly magnetic steel could be created by adding aluminum to non-magnetic nickel steel.MKM steel is tough and durable, inexpensive to produce, maintains strong mag.. Read More..
An Erlenmeyer flask or conical flask is a type of laboratory flask which features a flat bottom, a conical body, and a cylindrical neck. It is named after the German chemist Emil Erlenmeyer, who created it in 1860.DesignErlenmeyer flasks have wide bases, with sides that taper upward to a short vertical neck. They may be graduated, and often spots of ground glass or en.. Read More..
Cyanoacrylates are a family of strong fast-acting adhesives with industrial, medical, and household uses. Cyanoacrylate adhesives have a short shelf life if not used, about one year from manufacture if unopened, one month once opened. They have some minor toxicity.Cyanoacrylates include methyl 2-cyanoacrylate, ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (commonly sold under trade names suc.. Read More..
A well counter is a device used for measuring radioactivity in small samples. It usually employs a sodium iodide crystal detector. It was invented in 1951 by Hal Anger, who is also well known for inventing the scintillation camera.Anger filed U.S. patent #2,779,876 on March 3, 1953 for his "Radio-Activity Distribution Detector" which was later issued on January 29, 19.. Read More..
Fenton's reagent is a solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters. Fenton's reagent can be used to destroy organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychloroethylene (PCE). It was developed in the 1890s by Henry John Horstman Fenton as an analytical reagent.Fenton's Reagent is used t.. Read More..
Few technical breakthroughs have changed the face of their field like the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Gene cloning, sequencing of complex genomes, DNA fingerprinting and DNA-based diagnostics are just some of the techniques that were either inefficient, crude or plain impossible before PCR. The technique has revolutionized biological research and biotechnology to.. Read More..
Fluoxetine(Prozac) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. Fluoxetine was discovered and developed by scientists from Eli Lilly and Company.It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder in December 1987.The U.S. fluoxetine patent expired in August 2001, so generic formul.. Read More..
Feulgen stain is a staining technique invented by Robert Feulgen and used in histology to identify chromosomal material or DNA in cell specimens. It depends on acid hydrolysis of DNA, therefore fixating agents using strong acids should be avoided.The specimen is subjected to warm (60 °C) hydrochloric acid, then to Schiff reagent. In the past, a sulfite rinse followed.. Read More..
Chloroform is an organic compound with formula CHCl3. It is one of the four chloromethanes.The colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid is a trihalomethane, and is considered hazardous. Several million tons are produced annually as a precursor to PTFE and refrigerants, but its use for refrigerants is being phased out.The hydrogen attached to carbon in chloroform partic.. Read More..
International Klein Blue (IKB) was first mixed by the French artist Yves Klein,it is a deep blue hue . IKB's visual impact comes from its heavy reliance on Ultramarine, as well as Klein's often thick and textured application of paint to canvas.Invention HistoryInternational Klein Blue (IKB) was developed by Yves Klein in collaboration with Edouard Adam, a Pari.. Read More..
Liquid air is air that has been cooled to very low temperatures (cryogenic temperatures), so that it has condensed into a pale blue mobile liquid. To protect it from room temperature, it must be kept in a vacuum insulated flask. Liquid air can absorb heat rapidly and revert to its gaseous state. It is often used for condensing other substances into liquid and/or solid.. Read More..
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.It is named after its inventors, the German chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch, who developed it in the first half of the twentieth century. The process converts atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammo.. Read More..
Walden inversion is the inversion of a chiral center in a molecule in a chemical reaction. Since a molecule can form two enantiomers around a chiral center, the Walden inversion converts the configuration of the molecule from one enantiomeric form to the other. For example, in a SN2 reaction, Walden inversion occurs at a tetrahedral carbon atom. It can be visualized b.. Read More..
Ethylammonium nitrate or ethylamine nitrate (EAN) is a salt.It is an odorless and colorless to slightly yellowish liquid with a melting point of 12 °C.This compound was described by Paul Walden in 1914,and is believed to be the earliest reported example of a room-temperature ionic liquid.Principle & propertiesEthylammonium nitrate can be produced by heating ethyl n.. Read More..
An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state. In some contexts, the term has been restricted to salts whose melting point is below some arbitrary temperature, such as 100 °C (212 °F). While ordinary liquids such as water and gasoline are predominantly made of electrically neutral molecules, ionic liquids are largely made of ions and short-lived ion pairs. Thes.. Read More..
A Chamberland filter, also known as a Pasteur–Chamberland filter, is a porcelain water filter invented by Charles Chamberland in 1884.It is similar to the Berkefeld filter in principle.DesignThe filter consists of an unglazed porcelain tube that contains a ring of enameled porcelain through which the inflow pipe fits. The core of the porcelain is made up of a metal .. Read More..
The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones. The process is named after Polish scientist Jan Czochralski,who invented the method in 1916 while investigating the crystallization rates o.. Read More..
On April 2, 1889, Charles Martin Hall patented an inexpensive method for the production of aluminum, which brought the metal into wide commercial use.According to Jefferson Lab, "Although aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust, it is never found free in nature. All of the earth's aluminum has combined with other elements to form compounds. Tw.. Read More..
Nystatin is a polyene antifungal medication that is derived from a bacterium, Streptomyces noursei. It was discovered by Rachel Fuller Brown and Elizabeth Lee Hazen in 1950. Many mold and yeast infections are sensitive to nystatin, most notably Candida. It is used primarily for infections involving the skin, mouth, esophagus, and vagina. Due to its toxicity profile wh.. Read More..
The Girdler sulfide process is an industrial production method for filtering out of natural water the heavy water, which is used in particle research, in Deuterium NMR spectroscopy, deuteriated solvents for proton NMR spectroscopy, in nuclear reactors (as a coolant and moderator) in which case they are termed 'heavy water reactors' and in deuterated drugs. Kar.. Read More..
Frasch process, method of mining deep-lying sulfur invented by the German-born American chemist Herman Frasch. The process involves superheating water to about 170 °C (340 °F) and forcing it into the deposit in order to melt the sulfur (melting point of about 115 °C, or 240 °F), which is lifted to the surface by means of compressed air. The mixture of sulfur and w.. Read More..
Paraffin wax is a white or colorless soft solid derivable from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms. It is solid at room temperature and begins to melt above approximately 37 °C (99 °F);its boiling point is >370 °C (698 °F).Common applications for paraffin wax include lub.. Read More..
A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.HistoryWhen the University of Heidelberg hired Robert Bunsen in 1852, the authorities promised to build him a new laboratory building. Heidelberg had just begun to install coal-gas street .. Read More..
A Solvay process is for manufacturing sodium carbonate whereby a concentrated solution of sodium chloride is saturated with ammonia, carbon dioxide is passed through it, and the product is calcined.An industrial process, also known as the ammonia-soda process, for the manufacture of sodium carbonate.Sodium chloride (common salt), ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water rea.. Read More..
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radioisotope so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products. Radiolabeling is thus the radioactive form of isotopic labeli.. Read More..
Photographic fixer is a mix of chemicals used in the final step in the photographic processing of film or paper. The fixer stabilises the image, removing the unexposed silver halide remaining on the photographic film or photographic paper, leaving behind the reduced metallic silver that forms the image. By fixation, the film or paper is insensitive to further action b.. Read More..