Linus Carl Pauling
Award Name : National Medal of Science
Year of Award : 1974
Award for : Chemistry
Location : Portland, Oregon, United States
Linus Carl Pauling was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and educator. He published more than 1200 papers and books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific topics. Pauling was one of the founders of the fields of quantum chemistry and molecular biology. Linus Carl Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon, on 28th February, 1901. After completing postdoctoral studies, Pauling returned to Caltech in 1927. There he began a long career of teaching and research.
Analyzing chemical structure became the central theme of his scientific work. By using the technique of X-ray diffraction, he determined the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in several important silicate and sulfide minerals. President Ford awarded him the National Medal of Science in 1975, and in 1989 the National Science Board presented him with the Vannevar Bush Award in recognition of his outstanding contributions to science, technology, and society. He also received prominent medals and awards in mineralogy, international law, philosophy, and the social sciences. Nine biographies and three anthologies of his writings and speeches have been published thus far, and a two-volume collection of many of his most important scientific publications was published in 2002.