Overview Of Golf
- Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
- Golf is one of the few ball games that do not require a standardised playing area. The game is played on a course with an arranged progression of either nine or 18 holes.
- Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, and a putting green containing the actual hole. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough, and hazards, but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement.
- Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels.
- In 2005 Golf Digest calculated that the countries with most golf courses per capita, in order, were: Scotland, New Zealand, Australia, Ireland, Canada, Wales, United States, Sweden, and England (countries with fewer than 500,000 people were excluded).
- First Golf Course:
- The number of course in other territories increases, an example of this being the expansion of golf in China. The first golf course in China opened in 1984, but by the end of 2009 there were roughly 600 in the country.For much of the 21st century, development of new golf courses in China has been officially banned (with the exception of the island province of Hainan), but the number of courses had nonetheless tripled from 2004 to 2009; the "ban" has been evaded with the government's tacit approval simply by not mentioning golf in any development plans.
- In United States:
- In the United States, the number of people who play golf twenty-five times or more per year decreased from 6.9 million in 2000 to 4.6 million in 2005,according to the National Golf Foundation. The NGF reported that the number who played golf at all decreased from 30 to 26 million over the same period.
First known Rules of Golf:
The earliest known Rules of Golf were drafted by the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers in March 1744, which consisted of only 13 rules as follows:
1.You must Tee your Ball within a Club's length of the Hole.
2.Your Tee must be upon the Ground.
3.You are not to change the Ball which you Strike off the Tee.
4.You are not to remove Stones, Bones or any Break Club, for the sake of playing your Ball, except upon the fair Green within a Club's length of your Ball.
5.If your Ball comes among watter, or any wattery filth, you are at liberty to take out your Ball & bringing it behind the hazard and Teeing it, you may play it with any Club and allow your Adversary a Stroke for so getting out your Ball.
6.If your Balls be found any where touching one another, You are to lift the first Ball, till you play the last.
7.At Holling, you are to play your Ball honestly for the Hole, and not to play upon your Adversary’s Ball, not lying in your way to the Hole.
8.If you should lose your Ball, by its being taken up, or any other way, you are to go back to the Spot, where you struck last, & drop another Ball, And allow your adversary a Stroke for the misfortune.
9.No man at Holling his Ball, is to be allowed, to mark his way to the Hole with his Club, or anything else.
10.If a Ball be stopp’d by any Person, Horse, Dog or anything else, The Ball so stop’d must be play’d where it lyes.
11.If you draw your Club in Order to Strike, & proceed so far in the Stroke as to be bringing down your Club; If then, your Club shall break, in any way, it is to be Accounted a Stroke.
12.He whose Ball lyes farthest from the Hole is obliged to play first.
13.Neither Trench, Ditch or Dyke, made for the preservation of the Links, nor the Scholar's Holes, or the Soldier's Lines, Shall be accounted a Hazard; But the Ball is to be taken outand play’d with any Iron Club.
For many years, there were two sets of rules, codifed by the USGA and the R&A. Beginning in 1952 the two groups standardized the rules, publishing a new set every two years, usually with some minor changes. However, it was not until 1990 that the two sets of Rules truly became one, as both groups settled upon a standard set for the game. The biggest difference for many years was that the R&A allowed play with a 1.62 inch diameter ball, while the USGA ball was standardized at 1.68 inches.
There are three basic premises governing the Rules of Golf: 1) play the ball as it lies, 2) play the course as you find it, and 3) if unable to do either 1) or 2), do what is fair. There are currently 34 rules, with many sub-rules, and sub-sub-rules. In addition, the USGA and R&A publish a book called Decisions on the Rules of Golf, which are specialized rulings that have been standardized over the years, based on questions that have come up in competitive play.
Equipments Need For Golf
- Ball markers
- Golf bag
- Golf cart
- Club head covers
- Ball mark repair tool
History Of Golf
Timeline of Golf History:
100 BC-Early forms of Golf traced back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball
1457-The Scottish Parliament passed several acts banning the practice of the game, along with football (soccer), because the two sports were interfering with archery practice, which was necessary for national defence. The first act was passed in 1457 by James II, King of Scotland, and it was reaffirmed in 1471and 1491.
1500-The ban on golf in Scotland is lifted and within two years King James IV of Scotland takes up the game himself.
1552-Archbishop Hamilton’s Charter recognises the right of the people of St Andrews to play golf on the Old Course.
1567-Mary Queen of Scots reportedly plays golf just days after the murder of her husband Lord Darnley.
1603-King James VI ascends to the English throne and his court begins playing golf at Blackheath in London.
1724-The first known reference to golf balls being stuffed with feathers. They were previously made from hard leather.
1729-The first known reference is made to golf in the USA with clubs being recorded in the estate of William Burnet, the Governor of Massachusetts.
1744-The first Rules of Golf are set out by the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers.
1754-The Society of St Andrews Golfers is formed. It became the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in 1834.
1764-The Old Course at St Andrews is reduced from 22 holes to 18 holes. This became the recognised format for the game around the world.
1848-The gutta percha ball is introduced. It was a solid ball, made by softening strips of gutta percha, (dried sap of a Sapodilla tree) in boiling water and then moulding the ball by hand before placing it in cold water to harden.
1860-The first Open Championship is played at Prestwick and is won by Willie Park Senior of Scotland
1885-The secretary of Royal Liverpool Golf Club came up with the idea of an amateur event in which leading clubs were invited to send entrants. The Amateur Championship is played for the first time in 1885 at Hoylake. It is won by Allan MacFie of England.
1890’s-Persimmon becomes a popular wood for making club heads.
1893-The Ladies’ Golf Union is formed in the UK and the British Ladies’ Amateur Golf Championship is played for the first time at Royal Lytham & St Annes. It is won by Lady Margaret Scott of England.
1894-The United States Golf Association (USGA) is formed in New York. One of its most important functions was to serve as arbiter for questions of amateur status. The five charter members of the newly formed the USGA were the St. Andrew’s Golf Club of Yonkers, N.Y., Newport (R.I.) Golf Club, Shinnecock Hills Golf Club in Southampton, N.Y., The Country Club in Brookline, Mass., and Chicago Golf Club in Wheaton, Ill.
1895-1895The US Amateur Championship and the US Open are played for the first time at Newport Country Club, Rhode Island and are won respectively by Charles B Macdonald (USA) and Horace Rawlins (England). The US Women’s Amateur Golf Championship is also played for the first time at Meadow Brook Club in Long Island and is won by Lucy Barnes Brown of the USA.
1900-1900Golf is played at the Paris Olympic Games. Twenty two participants took part (12 men and 10 women) from four countries who competed in 36-hole individual stroke play events for men and women. The women’s Olympic champion was Margaret Abbot (USA) and Charles Sands (USA) was the men’s champion.1901 The rubber cored Haskell ball is introduced. It changed the way the game was played. The Haskell ball travelled farther than the old gutta-percha ball and cost considerably less because it could be mass produced. The game’s popularity surged in response.
1901-The first Professional Golfers’ Association (PGA) is formed in the UK.
1904-Golf is played for the second time in the Olympic Games in St Louis. Only men’s competitions were staged. (A team event of 36 holes stroke play won by the United States of America’s team and an individual event was won by George Lyon from Canada).
1916-The PGA of America is formed and the US PGA Championship is played for the first time at Siwanoy Country Club in New York.
1921-The Ryder Cup is played for the first time between the men’s professionals of Great Britain and the USA at Gleneagles. It is won by Great Britain.
1922-1922The Walker Cup is played for the first time between the men’s amateurs of Great Britain and Ireland and the USA at the National Golf Links of America in Southampton, New York. It is won by the USA.
1929-Steel shafted clubs are accepted by The R&A.
1930-1930Bobby Jones completed the Grand Slam of The Open, the Amateur Championship, The US Open and the US Amateur Championship in one season.
1932-The Curtis Cup is played for the first time between the women’s amateurs of Great Britain and Ireland and the USA at Wentworth. It is won by the USA.
1934-The inaugural Masters is staged at Augusta National. It is won by Horton Smith of the USA.
1946-1946The US Women’s Open is played for the first time at Spokane Country Club in Washington and is won by Patty Berg of the USA.
1950-The Ladies’ Professional Golfers’ Association (LPGA) is formed in the USA.
1953-The Tam O’ Shanter World Championship of Golf becomes the first nationally televised golf tournament in the USA.
1955-The LPGA Championship is played for the first time at Orchard Ridge Country Club. It is won by American Beverly Hanson.
1958-1964Representatives of 35 national amateur golf organisations form the World Amateur Golf Council. They agree to stage the World Amateur Team Championship with teams of men competing for the Eisenhower Trophy, named after President Dwight D Eisenhower. The event was staged at the Old Course in St Andrews and Australia defeated the USA in a play-off.
1964-A friendly match between the American Curtis team and France is expanded to invite other international teams to establish a Women’s World Amateur Team Championship. The trophy was provided by Mrs Espirito Santo Silva through the Portuguese Golf Federation. A total of 25 teams took part in the inaugural competition at St Germain Golf Club in France which was won by the home team.
1976-The Women’s British Open is played for the first time at Fulford Golf Club. It is won by England’s Jenny Lee Smith.
1980’s-Metal woods made of stainless steel are introduced.
1994-The Evian Masters is played for the first time at Evian-les-Bains in France. It is won by Helen Alfredsson of Sweden.
2000’s-Materials such as graphite, titanium, carbon fibre and tungsten are used to manufacture golf clubs.
2003-The World Amateur Golf Council becomes the International Golf Federation.
2009-The International Olympic Committee (IOC) votes in favour of golf returning to the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.
2010-The 150th anniversary Open Championship takes place on the Old Course at St Andrews.
2012-Work begins on the Rio 2016 Olympic golf course at Barra da Tijuca.
2016-Golf will be played at the Olympics in Rio de Janeiro for the first time in 112 years.
Origin Of Golf
While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated.The game plays a key role in the national sporting consciousness.
Golf in Scotland:
- The exact origins of the sport of golf are unclear. The most widely accepted theory is that the modern game of golf originated in Scotland in the High Middle Ages.The first golf courses and clubs were established in the country.
- First Rules and Tournament -The first written rules originated in Scotland, as did the establishment of the 18 hole course. The first tournament structures developed and competitions were held between various burghs. The modern game was spread by Scots to the rest of the world.
- The word golf was first recorded in the 15th century, appearing twice in an Act of the Scots Parliament of 6 March 1457, in the reign of James II. The Act, which ordered the holding of wappenschaws (English: musterings) four times a year for the purpose of archery practice, stated that "the fut bal ande the golf" (football and golf) were to be "vtterly criyt done" (condemned; lit. "cried down") and "nocht vsyt" (not engaged in; lit. "not used").
- The 1470 Act, in the reign of James III, again uses the spelling golf, but the 1491 Act, in the reign of James IV, spells it gouff;and variants such as gowf, gowff, gouf became the usual spellings during the Early Modern Period.
- The Scottish National Dictionary states that "golf represents a revival of the Middle Scots form; Loudoun Gowf Club, Newmilns, retains the old form in its title"; i.e. the spelling changed from Medieval golf to Early Modern gowf, and then back again.
Other golfing words of Scots origin
Links: first recorded in 1453 - "Et de xxx s. de le lynkis de Leith"
Golf club: first recorded in 1503-1504 - "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with"
Golfball: first recorded as a term in 1545 (although also referred to in the 1503-1504 Treasury account) - "Three dossoun and thre goif bawis"
Drive: first recorded in 1583 - "Ane golf staff to driffe the ball vithe all"
Tee (Teeing ground): first recorded in 1721 - "Driving their Baws frae Whins or Tee, There’s no ae Gowfer to be seen."
Putt: first recorded in 1743 - "Let each social soul Drink to the putter, the balls, and the hole."
Caddie (Caddy): first recorded in 1773 - "In order to preserve the holes, no Golfer or Cadie shall be allowed to make any Tee within ten yards of the hole.rules are to score a goal"
Golf in India:
India was the first country outside of Great Britain to take up the game of golf. The Royal Calcutta Golf Club, established in 1829, is the oldest golf club in India, and the first outside Great Britain. With the growing influence of the British in the Indian empire, the eighteenth century saw a mushrooming of new golf clubs in India. Wherever land was available and grass grew, golf found a new HOME.
International Golf Federation:
The International Golf Federation (IGF) was founded in 1958 and is the international federation recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the world governing body for golf.
The IGF has two membership categories representing the administration of golf internationally:
- 132 National Federation Members from 126 countries
- 22 Professional Members, mostly professional golf tours and Professional Golfers Associations
- Promote Golf as an Olympic Sport
- Encourage the international development of golf
- Administer golf as the recognised International Federation within the Olympic Movement
- Organise the golf competitions at the Olympic Games, Youth Olympic Games and the World Amateur Team Championships
IGF comprises 132 federations from 126 countries
Continental / Regional Federations:
The following seven regional association are formed with the IGF National Membership.
- Africa Golf Confederation
- Americas Golf Association
- Arab Golf Federation
- Asia-Pacific Golf Confederation
- Caribbean Golf Association
- European Golf Association (fr)
- South American Golf Federation
- Jan 1958-The USGA has received many invitations for international matches against individual countries and was unable to attend them all.The USGA Executive Committee, discussing yet another generous invitation – this time from Japan – proposed that it’s time an international team competition be established so that all countries can take part in these types of events.
- March 1958-Representatives from the USGA go to Scotland to discuss the idea with representatives from the R&A. The concept is enthusiastically received.
- May 1958-Representatives from 35 countries meet in Washington, D.C., hosted by the USGA and the R&A, to establish the World Amateur Golf Council, so that it may conduct the World Amateur Team Championship. The meeting is arranged through cooperation with Pan American Airlines and the U.S. Department of State, and the trips of all attendees are funded by an anonymous group, the Friends of American Golf.President Dwight D. Eisenhower welcomes the group in the White House Rose Garden. The Council is begun with 32 Member Organizations and governing Articles are established.
- Oct 1958-The first Championship is hosted by the R&A on the Old Course at St. Andrews, Scotland. The Australian team defeats the U.S. team in an 18-hole playoff by two strokes. Bobby Jones is the Captain of the U.S. team.With the permission of the President of the United States of America, the competition is played for the Eisenhower Trophy, which is inscribed, “To foster friendship and sportsmanship among the Peoples of the World,” the Council’s guiding principle. The trophy is presented to the USGA and the R&A by the Friends of American Golf.
- Sept 1960-The second Championship is hosted by the USGA at Merion Golf Club (East Course) in Ardmore, Pennsylvania. Although the original 1958 Delegates envisioned that the Championship would probably be match play by this year, it has remained at stroke play through the present day. Jack Nicklaus’s 72-hole record of 269 still stands today. (Ben Hogan won the 1950 U.S. Open at Merion with a 287.)
- 1964-The French Golf Federation proposes that the U.S. Curtis Cup Team come to France for an informal match after that year’s Curtis Cup Match in Wales. The USGA accepts the invitation but also suggests inviting other nations to create a women’s counterpart to the World Amateur Team Championship. The French are delighted to do so.Vicomtesse de Saint Sauveur (known to many of you readers as Lally Segard), of France, and Mrs. Henri Prunaret, of the United States of America, planned the Championship. In addition, Vicomtesse de Saint Sauveur had the idea to ask her friends from Portugal if they would be willing to donate a trophy she’d heard they had in their possession.Ricardo and Silvia Espirito Santo confirmed they had a gold-plated Cup, originally owned by Nicolas II, the Tsar of Russia, which was purchased in an auction after the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Espirito Santos had originally intended the trophy for a Portuguese International event that was no longer being played, and were delighted to give the Cup for the benefit of a World Championship.
- Oct 1964-The French Golf Federation holds the first Women’s World Amateur Team Championship. Twenty-five teams compete. France beats the USA by one stroke.With sincere thanks to France, it is unanimously agreed that the World Amateur Golf Council will hereafter sponsor and conduct the Women’s event.
- 2003-The World Amateur Golf Council changes its name to the International Golf Federation.
- 2008-The IGF membership approved the formation of the Olympic Golf Committee to coordinate golf’s bid on to the Olympic Programme.
- Oct 2009-At the International Olympic Committee Executive Session in October 2009 in Copenhagen, golf is voted in as one of the new sports on the Olympic Programme after having been absent for 113 years – since 1904 Olympics in St. Louis, USA.
- Oct 2010-Since it is a prerequisite of the International Olympic Committee for every sport on the Olympic Programme to have an International Federation as its representative body, the IGF was deemed the most appropriate existing body to do this.
- At the IGF biennial meeting in Argentina, the new constitution of the IGF was ratified and the federation’s headquarters moved to Lausanne, Switzerland. The IGF Board was formed and the IGF was granted professionals as an additional category of membership.
Awards Related To Golf
World Golf Awards:
World Golf Awards serves to celebrate and reward excellence in golf tourism, world class courses and golf destinations.
Golf tourism constitutes a vital segment in the global travel and tourism marketplace. The overwhelming success of the first year launch has created much discussion in the golf tourism world this event will grow year on year. 2015 will see World Golf Awards returning to the Algarve and the amazing Conrad Algarve.
PGA Player of the Year-1948:
Selected using a points system with marks awardedfor wins, money list position and scoring average.
PGA Tour Player of the Year-1990:
Selected by the tour players by ballot.Also known as the Jack Nicklaus Trophy.
Rookie of the Year-1990:Players who are eligible are in their first season of PGA Tour membership.
Awarded (by the PGA of America) to leader in adjusted scoring average with a minimum of 60 rounds played.
Byron Nelson Award-1980:
Awarded (by the PGA Tour) to leader in adjusted scoring average with a minimum of 50 rounds played.
Arnold Palmer Award-1981:
Given to the player with the most money earned in a season.
Comeback Player of the Year-1991:
Players vote for the honoree.
Jack Nicklaus Trophy-1990:
Player of the Year, determined by vote of the players at season's end.
Arnold Palmer Award-1980:
Given to the player with the most money earned in a season.
Charles Schwab Cup-2001:
Points are earned for thousands of dollars earned in top-ten finishes at tournaments.
Rookie of the Year-1990:
Players vote for the honoree.Comeback Player of the Year1991Players vote for the honoree.
Byron Nelson Award-1980:
Given to the golfer with thelowest scoring average of the season.
Harry Vardon Trophy-1937:
Awarded to the golfer who has won the most money. Through the 2008 season, the money list was known as the Order of Merit; it is now called the Race to Dubai.
Sir Henry Cotton Rookie of the Year-1960:
Selected by a panel comprising the PGA European Tour,the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St.Andrews and the Association of Golf Writers.
United States Golf Association:
- Bob Jones Award
- Joe Dey Award
- Herbert Warren Wind Book Award
- Green Section Award
- Haskins Award
- Edith Cummings Munson Golf Award
Sample Documents Of Golf