The purpose of Financial Modeling is to build a Financial Model which can enable a person to take better financial decision.The decision could be affected by future cash flow projections , debt structure for the company etc. All these factors may affect the viability for a project or investment in a company.The Applications of Financial Modeling mainly includes the followings :
One applications of Financial Modeling may be Business Valuation that is deciding the fair value for a business . Financial Modeling will help participants to reach to a price they are willing to pay or accept for the selling business.
Second applications of financial modeling is Organization’s decision making and scenario preparation .Financial Modeling is used by organizations for future planning their long term goals according to different situations that may arise.
To decide the Cost of Capital – if a company is going to invest in a new project then Financial Modeling for it will give analysis for debt/equity structure and expectation in return by investors ,thus setting benchmarks for project to meet .
Capital Budgeting -Financial Modeling helps companies determine alloting resources for major expenditure or investment etc.Purpose – increasing the value for the firm.
Financial Statement Analysis
Basic Financial Analysis tools include
Common size financial statements
Analysis of Various Ratios
Trend or Pattern analysis
Best Practices in Financial Modeling
In Financial Modeling it is desired that the working should be error less and should be easier to read and understand for audit purposes. By following these key principles, model will be easier to navigate and check, and reliable.
For most obvious results we need to follow the Firms standard format
Maintaining appropriate number of sheets
Using page breaks wherever required
Writing Executive Summary on top if desirable
Maintain versions of documents if future up gradations are expected
The following points should be kept in mind:
Using modular spreadsheet blocks will make changing each sheet easier without affecting others.
Proper protection should be given to the sheets and workbooks from unauthorized usage.
Labeling sheets, columns and rows with their applicable headings so that files will become easy to follow.
Better Document your assumptions
Assumptions documentation helps with validation & avoids misinterpretation.
Listing assumptions will be helpful for easier and quicker understanding.
Adding source data as well as calculations will provide a good map.
Use Linking and not hard-coding
Linking wherever required will be a good practice such that when the inputs change, the outputs will be changed automatically
It will save lots of hassles at final stage or at working stage
Facilitate Data entry at one place only
Avoid retyping of data, entering it once as a source and referencing it will make good sense.
It’s always better to link cell value rather than writing numeric value for calculations.
Good Practice is using Consistent Formulas
Using formulas and functions will be accurate and will save time.
Do not copy formula from one sheet to another as it will create links in files.
Avoid unnecessary blank columns and rows as this can be tedious at the time of making tables or other charts.
Creating Templates will be beneficial
Be precise with chart axes scale
Creating a VBA Style Guide containing rules and details about coding standards is good
Format and Label Clearly
It’s very important to format cells appropriately i.e. we should follow standard practices eg. we should use symbols for currency , percentages values etc. , which will make model easier for reading.
In Financial Modeling clear labeling is very important to improve readability
Try using different background colors for distinguishing input areas and calculation parts
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