Gerhard Fisher contributed to the development and popularity of the hand held metal detector.Gerhard Fisher immigrated to the United States from Germany after studying electronics at the University of Dresden. While working as a Research Engineer in Los Angeles, California his work with aircraft radio detection finders led him to the idea of a portable metal detectors. Fisher shared the idea with Albert Einstein who correctly predicted the proliferation of hand held metal detector use.
In 1881, Alexander Graham Bell constructed a crude metal detector in an attempt to find an assassin's bullet in President James Garfield. Gerhard Fischar patented a portable version in 1931.
Upright "archway" detectors are used at entrances to secured buildings, such as courthouses or airports, to detect metallic weapons which may be brought in. Small portable "wand" detectors are used by security staff to frisk persons for the same. Larger portable metal detectors are used by treasure hunters to locate metallic items, such as jewelry or coins, buried shallowly underground.
There are three types of metal detectors: beat frequency oscillator, induction balance, and pulse induction.
In a beat frequency oscillator detector, a coil is used as an inductor in an oscillator, whose frequency changes when metal causes its inductance to change. Another oscillator produces a close frequency, and audible beats between them signal metal.
In an induction balance detector, there are two coils, usually gibbous with about 10% overlap, and a sine wave is transmitted with one coil and received with the other. The coils are adjusted so that there is no signal in the receive coil when there is no metal nearby.
In a pulse induction detector, a pulse is generated (usually by cutting off an inductor) and sent through a coil and the detector listens for echoes.
Fisher Research Laboratory:
Gerhard Fisher founded Fisher Research Laboratory to develop and market the hand held metal detectors in 1931.