India's development pattern during 1950-80 was characterised by strong centralised planning, Government ownership of basic and key industries, excessive regulation and control of private enterprise, trade protectionism—through tariff and non-tariff barriers—and a cautious and selective approach towards foreign capital. It was a quota, permit and license regime guided and controlled by a bureaucracy trained in colonial style. This so-called inward-looking, import substitution strategy of economic development began to be widely questioned with the beginning of 1980s. Policy makers started realising the drawbacks of this strategy which inhibited competitiveness and efficiency and produced a much lower rate of growth than expected.Tilt towards economic liberalisation started in 1985 when Government announced a series of measures aimed at deregulation and liberalisation of industry. These measures, described as New Economic Policy, were followed by drastic changes introduced by the 1991 Industrial Policy Statement of the Government.As a result of economic reforms of the last 20 years, India is presently one of world’s fastest growing economies. In the last few years, it has emerged as a global economic power, the leading outsourcing destination and a favourite of international investors. Indian industry has upgraded technology and product quality to a significant degree and met the challenge of openness after being protected for so long.The Approach Paper to the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-13 to 2016-17) released by the Planning Commission, Government of India in October 2011 expressed concern at the slow growth of the manufacturing sector and emphasized "the need to sharply change the growth trajectory of India’s manufacturing sector" by adopting a holistic appraisal of what needs to be done to improve its competitiveness. This book contains 15 chapters which trace developments in different aspects of industrialization during the post-Independence period, explain the key reform measures undertaken for making Indian industry internationally competitive and examine current issues pertaining to this vital sector of the Indian economy.The book also contains the following 5 appendices: Appendix 1: Industrial Policy Resolution, 1956. Appendix 2: Statement on Industrial Policy, July 24, 1991. Appendix 3: Year-wise Review of Industrial Developments in India: 1947-48 to 2011-12. Appendix 4: Edited Extracts from India’s Five Year Plans on Industry (I to XII Plan). Appendix 5: Glossary of Industrial Terms.