The Franklin stove is a metal-lined fireplace named after its inventor, Benjamin Franklin. It was invented in 1741.It had a hollow baffle near the rear (to transfer more heat from the fire to a room's air) and relied on an ""inverted siphon"" to draw the fire's hot fumes around the baffle.It was intended to produce more heat and less smoke than an ordinary ope.. Read More..
Bifocals, eyeglasses with two distinct optical powers, are most commonly prescribed to people with presbyopia who also require a correction for myopia, hyperopia, and/or astigmatism.Benjamin Franklin is generally credited with the invention of bifocals. Historians have produced some evidence to suggest that others may have preceded him in the invention; however, a cor.. Read More..
Pressure cooking is the process of cooking food, using water or other cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel, known as a pressure cooker. Pressure cookers are used for cooking food more quickly than conventional cooking methods, which also saves energy.Pressure is created initially by boiling a liquid such as water or broth inside the closed pressure cooker. The trapped s.. Read More..
In 1733, Willam Kent, an architect from England, was attributed with the invention of baby carriage technology, though the original versions of this contraption were quite different from those around today. Kent created this for the children of the 3rd Duke of Devonshire. He was asked to create a transportation device to bring amusement to the young ones. The first mo.. Read More..
In Ancient Rome, Acta Diurna, or government announcement bulletins, were produced. They were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places.In China, early government-produced news sheets, called tipao, circulated among court officials during the late Han dynasty (second and third centuries AD). Between 713 and 734, the Kaiyuan Za Bao (""Bulletin of the Court"").. Read More..
In the times of the great seafarers and explorers, the hammock was an indispensable travel necessity, and was often used as a protective bed. Early hammocks were made from the bark from the hamack tree, which is where the word “hammock” originates. Hammocks were often used as beds to guard against disease transmission and animal bites. Because the hammocks were su.. Read More..
Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy of transportation. Powdered milk and dairy produc.. Read More..
The Mackintosh or raincoat is a form of waterproof raincoat, first sold in 1824, made out of rubberised fabric.The Mackintosh is named after its Scottish inventor Charles Macintosh, though many writers add a letter k (this variant spelling "Mackintosh" is now standard).Although the Mackintosh style of coat has become generic, a genuine Mackintosh coat should be made f.. Read More..
A match is a tool for starting a fire. Typically, modern matches are made of small wooden sticks or stiff paper. One end is coated with a material that can be ignited by frictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface.Wooden matches are packaged in matchboxes, and paper matches are partially cut into rows and stapled into matchbooks. The coa.. Read More..
A lighter is a portable device used to generate a flame. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with a flammable fluid or pressurized liquid gas, a means of ignition, and some provision for extinguishing the flame.HistoryThe first lighters were converted flintlock pistols that used gunpowder. One of the first lighters was invented by the German chemist nam.. Read More..
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are printed on special custom-made paper, show a national designation and a denomination (value) on the front, and have a gum adhesive on the back. Postage stamps are purchased from a postal administration or other authorize.. Read More..
Instant coffee, also called soluble coffee and coffee powder, is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. Instant coffee is commercially prepared by either freeze-drying or spray drying, after which it can be rehydrated. Instant coffee in a concentrated liquid form is also manufactured.Advantages of instant coffee include speed of preparation (instant coffee disso.. Read More..
Disposable blade straight razors, sometimes referred to as shavettes, are similar in use and appearance to straight razors, but use disposable blades, either standard double edged cut in half or specially made single edge.Disposable bladed straights are used in the same way as straight razors but do not require stropping and honing.Although the blades of disposable ra.. Read More..
A coffee filter is a coffee-brewing utensil, usually made of disposable paper. This enables it to trap the coffee grounds and allow the liquid coffee to flow through.Paper filters remove oily components called diterpenes; these organic compounds, present in unfiltered coffee are known to be antimicrobial and antiinflammatory. Metal or nylon mesh filters do not remove .. Read More..
A zipper, zip, fly or zip fastener, formerly known as a clasp locker, is a commonly used device for binding the edges of an opening of fabric or other flexible material, as on a garment or a bag.It is used in clothing (e.g., jackets and jeans), luggage and other bags, sporting goods, camping gear (e.g. tents and sleeping bags), and other items. Whitcomb L. Judson was .. Read More..
Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights and robots,and also known technically as traffic control signals are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings and other locations to control competing flows of traffic. The first manually operated gas lit traffic light was instal.. Read More..
Cotton swabs consist of a small wad of cotton wrapped around one or both ends of a short rod, usually made of either wood, rolled paper, or plastic.The cotton swab was invented in the 1920s by Leo Gerstenzang after he attached wads of cotton to toothpicks.His product, which he named "Baby Gays", went on to become the most widely sold brand name, "Q-tips", with the Q s.. Read More..
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles. The concepts of aerosol probably go as far back as 1790.The first aerosol spray can patent was granted in Oslo in 1926 to Erik Rotheim, a Norwegian chemical engineer,and a United States patent was granted for the invention in 1931.The patent rights were sold to a United St.. Read More..
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a strong, stiff synthetic fibre and resin, and a member of the polyester family of polymers. PET is spun into fibres for permanent-press fabrics, blow-molded into disposable beverage bottles, and extruded into photographic film and magnetic recording tape.Wyeth's most famous invention was the plastic soda pop bottle. Wyeth became .. Read More..
A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or magstripe, is read by swiping past a magnetic reading head. Magnetic stripe cards are commonly used in credit cards, identity cards, and transpo.. Read More..
Velcro is a fabric hook and loop fastener,invented in 1948 by the Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral. De Mestral patented Velcro in 1955, subsequently refining and developing its practical manufacture until its commercial introduction in the late 1950s. The name "Velcro" is also that of the company that first made and commercially marketed this type of fasten.. Read More..
A ballpoint pen, also known as a "biro" and "ball pen", is a pen that dispenses ink over a metal ball at its point, i.e. over a "ball point". The metal commonly used is steel, brass, or tungsten carbide.It was conceived and developed as a cleaner and more reliable alternative to quill and fountain pens, and it is now the world's most-used writing instrument:millio.. Read More..
Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose. Its low permeability to air, oils, greases, bacteria and water makes it useful for food packaging. Cellophane is in many countries a registered trade mark of Innovia Films Ltd based in Wigton, Cumbria, United Kingdom.Cellophane film was invented by Jacques E Brandenberger in 1908, a Swiss textile e.. Read More..
A dishwasher is a mechanical device for cleaning dishes and eating utensils. Dishwashers can be found in restaurants and private homes. Unlike manual dishwashing, which relies largely on physical scrubbing to remove soiling, the mechanical dishwasher cleans by spraying hot water, typically between 55 and 75 °C (130 and 170 °F) at the dishes, with lower temperatures .. Read More..
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container. Canning provides a shelf life typically ranging from one to five years, although under specific circumstances it can be much longer. A freeze-dried canned product, such as canned dried lentils, could last as long as 30 years in an edible state. In 1974,.. Read More..
A cheese knife is a type of kitchen knife specialized for the cutting of cheese. Different cheeses require different knives, according primarily to hardness; most often "cheese knife" refers to a knife designed for soft cheese.Thor Bjørklund (1889-1975) from Lillehammer invented the cheese slicer in 1925. Bjørklund was carpenter of profession. He constructed the che.. Read More..
The Space Pen (also known as the Zero Gravity Pen), marketed by Fisher Space Pen Company, is a pen that uses pressurized ink cartridges and is able to write in zero gravity, underwater, over wet and greasy paper, at any angle, and in a very wide range of temperatures.The Fisher Space Pen was invented by American industrialist and pen manufacturer Paul C. Fisher and is.. Read More..
A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle or Thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings.The vacuum flask consists of two flasks, placed one within the other and joined at the neck. The gap between the two flasks is partially evacuated of air,.. Read More..
A waterbed, water mattress, or flotation mattress is a bed or mattress filled with water. Waterbeds intended for medical therapies appear in various reports through the 19th century. The modern version, invented in San Francisco and patented in 1971, became an extremely popular consumer item in the United States through the 1980s and 90sThe first water-filled beds wer.. Read More..
A formicarium or ant farm is a vivarium which is designed primarily for the study of ant colonies and how ants behave. Those who study ant behavior are known as myrmecologists.HistoryThe formicarium was invented by Charles Janet, a French entomologist and polymath, who had the idea of reducing the three dimensions of an ant nest to the virtual two dimensions between t.. Read More..
The Post It Note may have been a God-sent, literally. In the early 1970s, Art Fry was in search of a bookmark for his church hymnal that would neither fall out nor damage the hymnal. Fry noticed that a colleague at 3M, Doctor Spencer Silver, had developed an adhesive in 1968 that was strong enough to stick to surfaces, but left no residue after removal and could be re.. Read More..
A mechanical pencil is a type of pencil in which the graphite lead is not attached to the outer casing as is in standard pencils. The lead consists of a thin stick of graphite, wax and clay. This means that the lead can be extended as it wears away removing the need for sharpening. Some mechanical pencils used recycled industrial carbon in place of graphite.HistoryThe.. Read More..
A noiseless match was invented in 1836 by the Hungarian Janos Irinyi, who was a student of chemistry.An unsuccessful experiment by his professor, Meissner, gave Irinyi the idea to replace potassium chlorate with lead dioxide in the head of the phosphorus match.He liquefied phosphorus in warm water and shook it in a glass vial, until it became granulated. He mixed the .. Read More..
A fountain pen is a nib pen that contains an internal reservoir of water-based liquid ink. The pen draws ink from the reservoir, through a feed, to the nib and deposits it on paper via a combination of gravity and capillary action.Filling the reservoir with ink may be achieved manually to transfer ink directly through the nib into the reservoir. Some pens employ remov.. Read More..
Chanel No. 5 was the first perfume launched by French couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. The chemical formula for the fragrance was compounded by Russian-French chemist and perfumer Ernest Beaux.History of Chanel No. 5At once, Joseph Robert was the chief perfumer at Chiris. With little prospect of being promoted under him, Ernest Beaux tried to use his contacts to the.. Read More..
A wetsuit is a garment, usually made of foamed neoprene, which is worn by surfers, divers, windsurfers, canoeists, and others engaged in water sports, providing thermal insulation, abrasion resistance and buoyancy. The insulation properties depend on bubbles of gas enclosed within the material, which reduce its ability to conduct heat. The bubbles also give the wetsui.. Read More..
The custom of sending Christmas cards was started in the UK in 1843 by Sir Henry Cole. He was a civil servant (Government worker) who was very interested in the new 'Public Post Office' and wondered how it could be used more by ordinary people.Early HistorySir Henry had the idea of Christmas Cards with his friend John Horsley, who was an artist. They designed .. Read More..
Madam C.J. Walker was born Sarah Breedlove on December 23, 1867, near Delta, Louisiana. After suffering from a scalp ailment that resulted in her own hair loss, she invented a line of African-American hair care products in 1905. She promoted her products by traveling around the country giving lecture-demonstrations and eventually established Madame C.J. Walker Laborat.. Read More..
Kirza is a type of artificial leather based on the multi-layer textile fabric, modified by membrane-like substances, produced mainly in the Soviet Union and Russia. The surface of kirza imitates the pig leather.UsageThe material is mainly used in production of military boots, where it is a cheap and effective replacement for natural leather. It is also used in product.. Read More..
RFIQin, also referred to as RFIQ, is a patented automatic cooking device that consists of three different sized pans, a portable induction heater, and recipe cards, which is designed by Vita Craft Corporation, but is currently only sold in Japan through Vita Craft Japan.Invention HistoryMamoru Imura is a Japanese inventor,music composer, and Chief Executive Officer of.. Read More..
A marker pen, fineliner, marking pen, felt-tip marker, felt-tip pen, flow, marker or texta (in Australia) or sketch pen (in India), is a pen which has its own ink-source, and usually a tip made of porous, pressed fibers such as felt.A typical permanent marker consists of a container (glass, aluminum or plastic) and a core of an absorbent material. This filling serves .. Read More..
A sugar packet is a delivery method for one 'serving' of sugar. Sugar packets are commonly supplied in restaurants, coffeehouses and tea houses in preference to sugar bowls or sugar dispensers for reasons of neatness, sanitation, spill control, and to some extent portion control.A typical sugar packet in the United States contains 2 to 4 grams of sugar. Some s.. Read More..
Universal Time (UT) is a time standard based on Earth's rotation. It is a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), i.e., the mean solar time on the Prime Meridian at Greenwich. In fact, the expression "Universal Time" is ambiguous (when accuracy of better than a few seconds is required), as there are several versions of it, the most commonly used being Co.. Read More..
Toothbrush is a kind of instrument which is used orally. The function of the toothbrush is to clean the teeth and other dust, unhygienic materials from our mouth and tongue. It consists of a handle which is kind of flat and a bit wider from a side. The bristles are attached with the handle on that flat part and it is used with toothpaste to cleanse the mouth. Toothpas.. Read More..
In Medieval music, the Guidonian hand was a mnemonic device used to assist singers in learning to sight-sing. Some form of the device may have been used by Guido of Arezzo, a medieval music theorist who wrote a number of treatises, including one instructing singers in sightreading. The hand occurs in some manuscripts before Guido's time as a tool to find the semit.. Read More..
Staff, also spelled stave ,Guido d’Arezzo in the notation of Western music, five parallel horizontal lines that, with a clef, indicate the pitch of musical notes. The invention of the staff is traditionally ascribed to Guido d’Arezzo in about the year 1000, although there are earlier manuscripts in which neumes (signs from which musical notes evolved) are arranged.. Read More..
A Mason jar is a molded glass jar used in home canning to preserve food. The mouth of the jar has screw threads on its outer perimeter to accept a metal ring (or "band"). The band, when screwed down, presses a separate stamped steel disc-shaped lid against the rim of the jar. An integral rubber ring on the underside of the lid creates a hermetic seal to the jar. The b.. Read More..
Gore-Tex is a waterproof, breathable fabric membrane and registered trademark of W. L. Gore and Associates. Invented in 1969, Gore-Tex is able to repel liquid water while allowing water vapor to pass through, and is designed to be a lightweight, waterproof fabric for all-weather use.In 1966, John W. Cropper of New Zealand developed and constructed a machine for produc.. Read More..
Synthetic diamond is diamond produced in an artificial process, as opposed to natural diamonds, which are created by geological processes. Synthetic diamond is also widely known as HPHT diamond or CVD diamond after the two common production methods (referring to the high-pressure high-temperature and chemical vapor deposition crystal formation methods, respectively). .. Read More..
A cultured pearl is a pearl created by a pearl farmer under controlled conditions.A cultured pearl develops in the same way as a natural pearl in the wild. Pearls are created from the core of certain shellfish, mainly oysters and mussels.The core of a natural pearl is simply a fragment of shell or a grain of sand. A pearl forms when an irritant enters the shell. The m.. Read More..
Margarine, food product made principally from one or more vegetable or animal fats or oils in which is dispersed an aqueous portion containing milk products, either solid or fluid, salt, and such other ingredients as flavouring agents, yellow food pigments, emulsifiers, preservatives, vitamins A and D, and butter. It is used in cooking and as a spread. Nutritionally, .. Read More..
Bubble Wrap is a trademarked brand of Sealed Air Corporation that includes numerous cushioning products made from bubble wrap.The brand is produced by the Product Care division of Sealed Air.Both the Bubble Wrap brand and product were introduced in 1960, with the launch of Sealed Air.Although the brand was originally used for the packaging of IBM computers, Sealed Air.. Read More..
A correction fluid or white-out, is an opaque, white fluid applied to paper to mask errors in text. Once dried, it can be written over. It is typically packaged in small bottles, and the lid has an attached brush (or a triangular piece of foam) which dips into the bottle. The brush is used to apply the fluid onto the paper.Before the invention of word processors, corr.. Read More..
Logarithm, the exponent or power to which a base must be raised to yield a given number. Expressed mathematically, x is the logarithm of n to the base b if bx = n, in which case one writes x = logb n. For example, 23 = 8; therefore, 3 is the logarithm of 8 to base 2, or 3 = log2 8. In the same fashion, since 102 = 100, then 2 = log10 100. Logarithms of the latter sort.. Read More..
Napier's bones is a manually-operated calculating device created by John Napier of Merchiston for calculation of products and quotients of numbers.Although John Napier is mainly remembered for the invention of logarithms , he considered mathematical studies as a hobby. Born in the mid-1500s into a wealthy Scottish family, Napier was able to pursue all manner of su.. Read More..
The decimal numeral system (also called base 10 or occasionally denary) has ten as its base. It is the numerical base most widely used by modern civilizations.John Napier is best known as the discoverer of logarithms. He also invented the so-called "Napier's bones" and made common the use of the decimal point in arithmetic and mathematics.Among Napier's early .. Read More..
Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that apply color, texture, and protection to the lips.Lip makeup entered mass production after becoming widely popular when the Lipstick was invented by Maurice Levy in 1915 a push up tube within a container essentially similar to the shape used today.“Natural” lipgloss was also invent.. Read More..
A permanent press is a characteristic of fabric that has been chemically processed to resist wrinkles and hold its shape. Alternative terms include wrinkle resistant, wash and wear, no-iron, durable press, and easy care. This treatment has a lasting effect on the fabric.Cotton’s penchant for wrinkling is inscribed in its DNA. Cotton is a cellulose fiber, and cellulo.. Read More..
A roller coaster is an amusement ride developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. LaMarcus Adna Thompson obtained a patent regarding roller coasters on January 20, 1885, which were made out of wood, but this patent is considerably later than the "Russian mountains" described below. In essence a specialized railroad system, a roller coaster consists of a trac.. Read More..
Masking tape is a type of pressure-sensitive tape made of a thin and easy-to-tear paper, and an easily released pressure-sensitive adhesive. It is available in a variety of widths. It is used mainly in painting, to mask off areas that should not be painted. The adhesive is the key element to its usefulness, as it allows the tape to be easily removed without leaving re.. Read More..
Eau de Cologne is a perfume originating from Cologne, Germany. Originally mixed by Italian-born Johann Maria Farina in 1709, it has since come to be a generic term for scented formulations in typical concentration of 2%–5% and also more depending upon its type essential oils or a blend of extracts, alcohol, and water. In a base of dilute ethanol (70%–90%), eau de .. Read More..