Security forms an important component of the way international relations are played out. After Independence in 1947, India followed a policy of non-alignment to protect and promote the interests of the new born nation. India’s security concerns at that time revolved around the threats emanating primarily from Pakistan. China was also perceived as a threat to India’s national security. However, the age of neo-liberal globalization has added additional dimensions to the conventional threats. In the post-Cold War period, the major security concern of India emanates from cross-border terrorism. The challenges posed by international terrorism, global economic meltdown and environmental degradation including climate change are also security concerns that India has to address seriously. The crisis in the energy sector is another major security challenge. On the domestic front, India faces many challenges including poverty, illiteracy, social and economic inequalities, communalism, regional imbalances, development-based displacement etc.