India and China historically share similar developmental issues with differential policy strategies. The last two decades have seen significant activities and resultant growth in these giant economies of Asia. The trade sector of these giants surged remarkably during the recent years. Trade openness played an important role in boosting the economic growth. However, rising inequality and higher level of poverty have been major issues haunting their policy. The papers in this volume, contributed by experts from the two countries, focus on issues related to trade performance, special economic zones, food security, economic reforms and poverty reduction, demographic dividend and finance. The institutional problems that affect sustained economic growth and the concerns about sharing of growth benefits with the weaker sections of the society are discussed. The papers contribute to the literature on comparative analysis of India and China and will stimulate further research in this field. This volume, encompassing a wide range of important bilateral issues, will be highly useful to the students, academicians and policy planners.